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Principles of effective reporting and information sharing

The principles that guide effective reporting and information sharing are set out in the table below. Taken from Framework for effective information sharing on the Assessment Online website, these set out the principles for effective information sharing and expected outcomes, supported by the evidence from research, policy and regulation.

Foundations for learning (Principle 3) are those essential skills – reading, writing, mathematics and key competencies – that are fundamental to ongoing learning across the curriculum. They are considered to have a multiplier effect on student learning. Enhanced capability in the foundations for learning will lead to enhanced capability across the curriculum.

  • The key contributors to learning classrooms are teachers, students, and parents and whānau. These contributors need to maintain close dialogue, share information, and work together if students are to be fully supported in their learning. 

Ministry of Education Assessment Position Paper, 2011

You can find more information underpinning these principles in this Reporting to Parents Back ground paper (PDF 1 MB) .



In an effective reporting process, information sharing is guided by the following:
If information is being reported and shared effectively, these are the likely outcomes:

1. Ako

  • Information sharing and reciprocal learning, or ako, underpin all reporting processes.
  • Parents and whānau share their expectations, their child’s interests, strengths, and learning needs and the knowledge they value.
  • School practices add to family practices and family practices add to school practices.
  • Teachers know about their students’ identity, language, culture, interests and talents.
  • Students/ākonga know that their teachers respect who they are.

2. Focus and coverage

  • Information sharing provides appropriate focus, coverage and valid and fair information about students’ progress and achievement towards valued learning outcomes across the breadth of the curriculum.
  • Parents and whānau are clear about what their child has achieved and the progress their child has made across the breadth of the curriculum, including the curriculum vision of confident, connected, actively engaged, life-long learners.

3. Foundations for learning

  • Information sharing is clear about students’ understandings and skills in areas that are likely to have a multiplier effect* on their ongoing learning in all areas.
  • Parents and whānau can clearly see students’ progress and achievement in literacy, numeracy, key competencies and ‘learning-to-learn’ skills.

4. Student responsibility

  • Reporting involves and benefits students/ākonga. Each student takes increasing levels of responsibility for reporting on their own progress in ways that strengthen their view of themselves as a learner and their understanding of what they have learnt. 
  • Students/ākonga are clear about what they have learnt, which learning strategies were successful, what they need to focus on next and why it is important.

5. Motivation

  • Information is deliberately designed to enhance student, parent and whānau motivation and engagement.
  • Reports enable each and every child to celebrate their progress towards their learning goals.
  • Student/ākonga, parent and whānau motivation to support learning is enhanced.
  • Students/ākonga who would normally "switch off" when faced with low achievement remain motivated.

6. Technologies

Available technologies are used to:

  • make the indicators of each student’s progress more visible
  • enhance reciprocal information sharing for teachers, students, parents and whānau
  • engage networks to support students' further learning.
  • Parents and whānau can see their child’s progress on-line in real time.
  • Parents, whānau and the wider community use a range of technologies to support their children’s learning.

7. Checking in with parents

  • Schools regularly inquire into and evaluate the effectiveness of their information-sharing processes, and improvements in information-sharing policies, processes and practices are made as a result of listening to parents’ and students’ voices.
  • Parents and whānau are confident interacting with their children’s teachers
  • Parents and whānau feel their views are valued
  • Parents and whānau understand where their children are at, what progress they have made and what they need to learn next.
  • Parents and whānau know where to access the information and resources they need to support their children’s learning.