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Moderation resources

On this page you can find key resources to support moderation within and across schools.

Recording moderation results for consistency

Here is a table that schools can use to record OTJ moderation results and an explanation of the need for recording and improving consistency of agreement in OTJ moderation.

Word icon. OTJ agreement and recording table (Word 55 KB)

Key resources you could use during moderation

Subject-specific resources to use during moderation



  • The Literacy Learning Progressions
  • The English Language Learning Progressions
  • The Learning Progression Frameworks
  • Progress and Consistency Tool (PaCT)
  • The way schools operate their running record procedures often varies from teacher to teacher and across schools. A standardised approach to running records is important so dependable teacher decisions can be used to support student learning and contribute to overall teacher judgments. The Ministry of Education’s resource, Using running records, remains the standard of how to administer a running record. The resource is no longer being produced, but it is available from libraries around New Zealand including the National Library. Information is also available in Running records for classroom teachers, Marie M. Clay, ISBN 978-0-868633-48-0
  • The Ready to Read series (for years 1–3) and Junior Journals (for years 2–3) are core instructional reading series for New Zealand students. Controlling the difficulty of these texts is standardised for New Zealand schools. They are designed to support the teaching of reading and are referred to in multiple supporting professional texts.


Example diagram of a primary school's assessment system and processes

Schools can check their processes against this diagram of the assessment process – from gathering data, through goal setting, making OTJs and moderation, to reporting and new goal setting. 

Word icon. School assessment processes (Word 242 KB)

Example of an assessment year planner for primary schools

Schools can use this month by month planner to track their assessment processes and plan improvements.

Word icon. School assessment and reporting cycle (Word 73 KB)

Moderation research

This paper, by Rosemary Hipkins and Edith Hodgen, discusses an analysis of teacher survey responses about school moderation practice in relation to its use in professional learning, and considers the implications of the findings in the light of a literature review on moderation and teacher learning that has recently been undertaken. The paper was presented at the Symposium on Assessment and Learner Outcomes, Wellington, September 1–3, 2011.

Download the literature review on moderation and teacher learning from NZCER's website: Moderation and Teacher Learning: What can research tell us about their inter-relationships?