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Assessment position papers, readings, and resources

There is a wealth of position papers, reports, articles, and videos about the principles and practices of formative assessment. We feature a key selection of them here. 

Black Box articles

This is a series of articles published by education researchers and specialists in the UK. In the original article, Inside the Black Box, authors Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam document the results of an extensive survey of the research literature on formative assessment to conclude that “We know of no other way of raising standards for which such a strong prima facie case can be made on the basis of evidence of such large learning gains”. Subsequent "Black Box" articles build on this seminal work.

Inside the Black Box
Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam. King's College London, 1998.

Testing, Motivation and Learning
Testing, Motivation and Learning: Assessment Reform Group, 2002.

The Black Box Assessment for Learning Series

This series is edited by Paul Black, Christine Harrison, Bethan Marshall and Dylan Wiliam, King’s College London. These resources are not available on-line.

  • Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for Learning in the ClassroomPaul Black, Christine Harrison, Clare Lee, Bethan Marshall, and Dylan Wiliam, King's College London (2002).
  • Inside the Primary Black Box: Assessment for Learning in Primary and Early Years Classrooms. Christine Harrison and Sally Howard (2009).
  • Design and Technology Inside the Black Box, Judy Moreland, Alister Jones and David Barlex (2008).
  • English Inside the Black Box, Bethan Marshall and Dylan Wiliam (2006).
  • Geography Inside the Black Box, Paul Weeden and David Lambert (2006).
  • ICT Inside the Black Box, Mary Webb and Margaret Cox (2007).
  • Mathematics Inside the Black Box, Jeremy Hodgen and Dylan Wiliam (2006).
  • Modern Foreign Languages Inside the Black Box.
  • Science Inside the Black Box, Paul Black and Christine Harrison (2004).

>> Reports and readings 

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