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Effective feedback

Teacher discussing artwork with students.

Specific, descriptive feedback is necessary for improvement and success. How teachers provide suggestions for improvement is critical in "closing the gap" for students.

Teachers who combine strong subject knowledge with effective feedback can offer students rich, focused information about their learning and how to improve it.

Students who are clear about their learning can monitor their progress and seek feedback to improve their learning.

Readings and resources

Teachers working together.

Professional learning resource

Download this slide presentation for further professional development. It identifies strategies that improve the quality of feedback to learners through suggested readings and classroom activities.

PowerPoint icon. Effective feedback (PowerPoint 1 MB)

References and readings

Absolum, M. (2006). Clarity in the classroom. Auckland: Hodder Education.

Clarke, S. (2001). Unlocking formative assessment: Practical strategies for enhancing pupils’ learning in the primary classroom. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Clarke, S. (2003). Enriching Feedback in the primary classroom. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning. London and New York: Routledge.

Tunstall, P., & Gipps, C. (1996). Teacher feedback to young children in formative assessment: A typology. British Educational Research Journal, 22 (4).