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Moderation resources

This page has information about key resources to support moderation across reading, writing, and mathematics, discussion questions for schools to consider about their moderation practices, and links to moderation research.

Key resources

Key moderation resources include:

Subject-specific resources



  • The Literacy Learning Progressions
  • The English Language Learning Progressions
  • The way schools operate their running record procedures often varies from teacher to teacher and across schools. A standardised approach to running records is important so dependable teacher decisions can be used to support student learning and contribute to overall teacher judgments. The Ministry of Education’s resource, Using running records, remains the standard of how to administer a running record. The resource is no longer being produced, but it is available from libraries around New Zealand including the National Library. Information is also available in Running records for classroom teachers, Marie M. Clay, ISBN 978-0-868633-48-0
  • The Ready to Read series (for years 1–3) and Junior Journals (for years 2–3) are core instructional reading series for New Zealand students. Controlling the difficulty of these texts is standardised for New Zealand schools. They are designed to support the teaching of reading and are referred to in multiple supporting professional texts.


Questions for discussion

  • What moderation processes does our school currently use and what can we take from these to other learning areas where reliable information is important?
  • Who leads or should lead the moderation process and how?
  • How is our school going to get an effective moderation process established and where could we go for support?
  • How involved are the students in the moderation process? How can we support them to moderate their own work within their classrooms?
  • Have our moderation processes been recorded and do we use them to maintain a consistent approach?
  • Does our school already have annotated exemplars available for teachers to use as references?
  • Do teachers make use of key resources such as the booklet and DVD "Using Running Records"?
  • How well do teachers at our school currently place students across the numeracy stages of the number framework and are these decisions consistent and what does our school need to do to improve this consistency?
  • Which school(s) would be suitable for networking with, to extend our  moderation processes further? How consistent are decisions across schools?
  • Who could assist our school in this way so interested groups can have confidence in the school’s assessment system?

Moderation research

This paper, by Rosemary Hipkins and Edith Hodgen, discusses an analysis of teacher survey responses about school moderation practice in relation to its use in professional learning, and considers the implications of the findings in the light of a literature review on moderation and teacher learning that has recently been undertaken. The paper was presented at the Symposium on Assessment and Learner Outcomes, Wellington, September 1–3, 2011.

Download the paper from NZCER's website: National Standards, Moderation, and Teacher Learning (2011)

Download the literature review on moderation and teacher learning from NZCER's website: Moderation and Teacher Learning: What can research tell us about their interrelationships?