Te Kete Ipurangi Navigation:

Te Kete Ipurangi
Communities
Schools

Te Kete Ipurangi user options:


You are here:

Teachers' notes – resources

Written language resources

Poetic writing: Personal experience and character

References for teachers

Calkins, Lucy, with Harwayne, Shelley (1991). Living between the Lines. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.

Derewianka, Beverley (1990). Exploring How Texts Work. Rozelle: Primary English Teaching Association.

Hood, Harry (2000). Left to Write too: Developing Effective Written Language Programmes for Young Learners. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.

Ministry of Education (1992). Dancing with the Pen: The Learner as a Writer. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (1996). Exploring Language: A Handbook for Teachers. Wellington: Learning Media.

Wing Jan, Lesley (1991). Write Ways: Modelling Writing Forms. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Examples of personal experience writing

Many examples of personal experience writing (mainly by adult authors) can be found in the School Journal and the Journal of Young People's Writing (texts written by student authors). Teachers could use Journal Search to find writing examples that match the backgrounds and interests of their students. They could start their search by using the following keywords: "Feelings", "Family Life", "Relationships", "Children as Authors", and "Children's Prose".

Teachers might find the following titles good starting points:

Journal of Young People's Writing

  • "My Feelings" (Some Place Wonderful, 1988)
  • "A Letter from Sam E" (Cricket Bat Smash!, 2001).

School Journal

  • "Eels Have Feelings, Too" (1.6.78)
  • "Race You to Breakfast" (2.3.97)
  • "Swallowed by the Sea" (2.1.03)
  • "Nana's Story" (2.1.03)
  • "First Dive" (3.1.97)
  • "Alone" (3.2.97)
  • "First Jump" (4.1.88)
  • "Running the Fletcher Challenge" (4.1.96).

School Journal stories by David Hill are often good examples of personal experience writing, for example:

  • "Once Bitten" (4.3.94)
  • "Get Out of My Hair" (4.2.00)
  • "Past and Present" (4.2.01).

Teachers could also find good examples of personal experience writing in several issues of Tickety-Boo!, distributed free to the "Duffy" schools as part of the Books in Homes initiative. The two most recent issues are:

  • Alan Duff Charitable Foundation (2000). Tickety-Boo! Issue 4. Wellington: Learning Media.
  • Alan Duff Charitable Foundation (2002). Tickety-Boo! Issue 5. Wellington: Learning Media.

Materials to promote personal experience writing

Teachers could refer to the following Assessment Resource Bank items:

  • Level 2: A Special Day; Fun with a Friend
  • Level 3: Pets; Best and Worst; Holidays; My Friend
  • Level 4: What a Laugh; Risk Taker; My Biggest Thrill; The Centre of Town.

Teachers could also refer to the following English Online units:

  • Level 1: Teddybears
  • Levels 1–2: Postcards from My Planet
  • Levels 3–4: Camp Thrills, Chills, and Spills
  • Level 5: Writing for Publication

Examples of character writing

Refer to the introductory page of the character exemplars for a detailed list of texts that teachers could use with students as good examples of character writing.

Materials to promote character writing

Teachers could also refer to the following English Online units:

  • Level 2: What A Character!
  • Level 3: Ahoy Matey!
  • Level 5: Writing for Publication

Transactional writing: Explanation and argument

References for teachers

Anderson, Mark and Anderson, Kathy (2002). Text Types in English 3. Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia.

Derewianka, Beverley (1993). Exploring How Texts Work. Rozelle: Primary English Teaching Association.

Education Department of Western Australia (1997). First Steps: Writing: Developmental Continuum. Melbourne: Rigby Heinemann.

Education Department of Western Australia (1997). First Steps: Writing: Resource Book. Melbourne: Rigby Heinemann.

Hood, Harry (2000). Left To Write Too: Developing Effective Written Language Programmes for Young Learners. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.

Knapp, Peter and Watkins, Megan (1994). Context, Text, Grammar: Teaching the Genres and Grammar of School Writing in Infant and Primary Classrooms. New South Wales: Text Productions.

Martin, J; with Christie, F; Gray, B; Gray, P; Macken, M; and Rothery, J (1992). Exploring Explanations: Teachers' Book: Levels 1–4. Sydney: Harcourt Brace.

Ministry of Education (1996). Describe, Explain, Argue: Teaching and Learning Transactional Writing from Level 1–Level 4. Christchurch: User Friendly Resources.

Ministry of Education (1996). Exploring Language: A Handbook for Teachers. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education (1996). The Learner as a Reader: Developing Reading Programmes. Wellington: Learning Media.

Whitehead, David (2001). Top Tools for Literacy and Learning. Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand Limited.

Wing Jan, Lesley (1991). Write Ways: Modelling Writing Forms. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Examples of argument writing

Some examples of argument writing can be found in the School Journal. Teachers should use Journal Search to find writing examples that match the backgrounds and interests of their students. Teachers might find the following titles good starting points:

  • "Should Animals be Kept in Zoos?" (1.4.98)
  • "Remembering the A-bomb" (3.2.86)
  • "Is That a Soft Drink Bottle You're Wearing?" (4.1.99)
  • "War – Who Wants to Remember It?" (4.2.97)
  • "Shifting Sands" (4.2.96)
  • "A Fishy Question" (3.3.95)
  • "Andolino" (3.2.96)
  • "Future Thinkers" (4.2.00)
  • "Tattoo – or Not?" (4.1.92)
  • "The Motorway Debate" (4.1.92)
  • "Operation Skatebowl" (4.1.98).

Arguments appear in a variety of forms in newspaper articles, editorial columns, letters to the editor, and editorial responses.

Materials to promote argument writing

Teachers could refer to the following Assessment Resource Bank items:

  • Level 1: Why Exercise?; Sand Dunes Poster
  • Level 2: Should Children be Allowed to Play Outside at Playtimes and Lunchtimes if Not Wearing Hats?; Should Children be Allowed to Ride Skateboards, Rollerblades, or Scooters in the Playground?
  • Level 3: Keeping Animals in Zoos; Should Animals be Kept in Zoos?
  • Level 4: Stick with BIC; Tranz Alpine; School Camps; Kaiteriteri Kayaks; Pet Dog; Teacher for a Day; Should Students Have to Wear a School Uniform?; Recreation; Should Schools Sell Lollies and Ice-blocks?; Should Primary School Students Get Homework?; Should Students be Able to Wear Jewellery at School?

Teachers could also refer to the following English Online units:

  • Level 2: Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?
  • Level 4: Taha Moana – the Sea Guilty/Not Guilty
  • Level 5: What's the Problem?

In addition, teachers might wish to use "argument" titles from the Sails Literacy series (Heinemann) in their shared and guided reading programmes. Possible titles include:

  • Animals Say
  • Kids Say
  • Should This Have Happened?
  • What's Your Opinion?

Examples of explanation writing

Some examples of explanatory writing can be found in the School Journal and in the Connected series. Teachers should use Journal Search to find writing examples that match the backgrounds and interests of their students.

Teachers might find the following titles good starting points:

From the School Journal:

  • "Ber-bang! Bang!" (1.1.94)
  • "Sounds in Space" (2.1.88)
  • "Fossils" (2.4.93)
  • "Plants that Store Water" (2.3.93)
  • "The Dance of the Air" (2.1.95)
  • "K9 Search and Rescue (2.1.96)
  • "How to Collect and Display a White Butterfly" (3.2.88)
  • "If You Can Float ..." (4.1.86)
  • "Round-the-Pole Flying" (4.2.97)
  • "How Dreading Works" (4.3.97)
  • "Virus Warning" (4.3.97)
  • "Fun with Photos" (4.2.00)

From Connected:

  • "The Eye" (3, 1999)
  • "Night Lights" (3, 1999).

Materials to promote explanation writing

Teachers could refer to the Assessment Resource Bank items:

  • Level 2: Lunch at a Japanese School
  • Level 5: Music 
  • Level 3 English Online unit: Have You Ever Wondered?

In addition, teachers might wish to use "explanation" titles from the Sails Literacy series (Heinemann) in their shared and guided reading programmes. Possible titles include:

From Here to There:

  • Stomachs
  • Using a Tail
  • Energy
  • Using a Beak
  • Space Junk
  • Worm Work
  • Kitesurfing

Teachers might also use generic "reference texts" such as the "Tell Me Why?" books (Chancellor) and materials published on www.howstuffworks.com for promoting the writing of explanations.

Oral language resources

Materials that teachers could use to promote oral language

Teachers could refer to the relevant items in the Assessment Resource Bank.

Teachers could also refer to the Units for Oral Language at English Online.

The exemplars for oral language are available on the video: Speaking and Listening – Interpersonal Speaking: Group Discussion. (Item number 10663. Orders: Freefax 0800 660 663; Email orders@thechair.minedu.govt.nz)

Visual language resources

Materials that teachers could use to promote presenting: Static and moving images

Teachers could refer to the relevant items in the Assessment Resource Bank.

Teachers could also refer to the Units for Visual Language at English Online.

The exemplars for moving images are available on the CD-ROM: The New Zealand Curriculum Exemplars, English, Visual Language, Moving Images.