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Matrix of progress indicators – Oral language: Interpersonal speaking

This matrix for Oral language sets out the English curriculum achievement objectives across levels 1 to 5, as demonstrated in students' work. The progress indicators cover the strategies that students may use to contribute effectively to group discussion along with the content of that contribution.

Please be aware that these exemplars relate to the curriculum levels and achievement objectives described in the previous New Zealand Curriculum, published in 1994. These, and the progressions of learning described, may not correspond with those described in the 2007 New Zealand Curriculum.

 

Using the progress indicators

These indicators have been developed to help teachers to understand and evaluate their students' progress and achievement in Interpersonal Speaking (group discussions). The indicators link closely with the annotations on the exemplars. Teachers can refer to the progress indicators to:

  • form a judgment on the level which their students' work in group discussions best fits
  • inform their feedback to and conversations with students on their progress in Oral Language.

"Best fit" means the level where the students' work most predominantly sits – it does not have to meet all the progress indicators for that particular level.

Please note that level 1 is further divided into three stages of progression: i, ii, and iii. This recognises that most students make rapid advances in acquiring oral language skills during their initial years of schooling. Levels 2 to 5 are not similarly subdivided.

In working with these progress indicators, teachers should be aware of appropriate communication strategies in different cultures and contexts.

Student goals

Through participating in group discussions, students should:

  • learn how to express their own point of view and perspectives
  • develop awareness of others' points of view and perspectives
  • develop their speaking and listening skills
  • develop strategies for achieving the purpose of the discussion.

Key question for teachers

When assessing students' speaking, the principal question that teachers must ask is:

  •  "How has this student contributed to achieving the purpose of the discussion?"

Reference

Ministry of Education (1996). English in the New Zealand Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media.

Levels Progress indicators
Key aspect of learning: Strategy Key aspect of learning: Content
Participation Role Speaking and listening skills Ideas Language
Level 1i Contributes some information when prompted. Relies on teacher support to maintain a group discussion. Shows some response during interaction. Adds a few comments or questions in response to others.
Contributes from personal experiences, usually without reference to the contributions of other people.
Attempts to express an opinion on personal matters.
Uses vocabulary that may provide some information for the listener.
Level 1ii Volunteers some information on topics within own experience. Relies on some teacher support to maintain a group discussion. Attempts to use some social courtesies specific to group discussion and relevant to the content area, including: turn taking; responding appropriately; listening to the speaker; making connections with the speaker, e.g., nodding, smiling.
Attempts to use some verbal and non-verbal features to gain attention and communicate ideas
Begins to ask questions to gain or clarify information.
Attempts to express an opinion on personal matters.
Begins to clarify comments by rephrasing, e.g., "I mean."
Uses vocabulary that enables the listener to interpret the message.
Level 1iii Participates in a discussion on topics within own experience. With some support, assumes different roles within discussion groups, e.g., leader, reporter. Responds appropriately to questions.
Displays some social courtesies specific to group discussion and relevant to the content area, including: turn taking; listening to the speaker; acknowledging and making connections with the speaker; interrupting appropriately, e.g., "Yes, and ... ", "What about... ?"; responding appropriately, e.g., "I agree... ", "I disagree... ".
Uses some appropriate verbal and non-verbal features to gain attention and communicate ideas.
Clarifies information by appropriate questioning, repeating or rephrasing.
Makes comments or conveys opinions related to the topic.
Ensures that own contributions make sense.
Generally uses language appropriate to context and topic.
Generally uses vocabulary that enables the listener to interpret the message.
Level 2 Participates in a group discussion.
Initiates and/or maintains a discussion, usually keeping to the topic.
Takes on assigned roles within discussion groups, e.g., leader, reporter. Uses some social courtesies specific to group discussion and relevant to the content area, including: turn taking; listening to the speaker; acknowledging and making connections with the speaker; interrupting appropriately, e.g., "What if... ?"; responding appropriately, e.g., "I agree... ", "What about... ?", "I think... ".
Uses appropriate verbal and non-verbal features to gain attention, communicate ideas, and obtain feedback.
Clarifies information, opinions, and ideas by using open and closed questions and by repeating, rephrasing, or extending information.
Expresses opinions and discusses ideas about personal and indirect experiences.
Expresses and justifies some ideas and opinions.
Listens for and identifies some key points.
Uses language appropriate to the context and the topic.
Uses vocabulary to support own opinions.
Level 3 Participates in group discussions.
Initiates and/or sustains and develops the discussion, keeping to the topic.
Responds to and respects the contributions of others.
Takes on a role within discussion groups, e.g., leader, reporter. Uses social courtesies specific to group discussion, including: turn taking; listening to the speaker; acknowledging and making connections with the speaker; interrupting appropriately, e.g., "Do you mean... ?"; responding appropriately, e.g., "What about... ?", "Is that like... ?".
Uses strategies for coping with disagreements, e.g., seeking the opinions of or appealing to other group members ("What do the rest of you think?").
Uses a variety of appropriate verbal and non-verbal features to gain attention, communicate ideas, and obtain feedback.
Uses questioning techniques to clarify information, understanding, opinions, and ideas.
Explains, suggests, and elaborates ideas, information, and opinions related to personal and indirect experiences.
Justifies ideas and opinions.
Listens for and can identify most key points.
Uses language appropriate to the context, the topic, and the purpose of the discussion.
Chooses vocabulary to enhance own ideas and opinions, including subject-specific vocabulary.
Level 4 Initiates discussion with confidence.
Sustains group discussions.
Respects and supports the contribution of others.
Is able to take on different roles within discussion groups with confidence. Confidently uses social courtesies specific to group discussion, including: turn taking, listening to the speaker; making connections with the speaker; interrupting and responding appropriately, e.g., "What do you mean by... ?", "That's a good point... ". Uses strategies for coping with disagreements.
Confidently uses a variety of appropriate verbal and non-verbal features to gain and regain attention, communicate ideas, and obtain feedback.
Uses a range of questioning techniques with confidence to clarify information, understanding, opinions, and ideas.
Elaborates coherently and explores information, opinions, and ideas related to personal and indirect experiences.
Expresses and justifies ideas and opinions using logic and argument.
Identifies key points/main ideas and summarises accurately.
Consistently uses language appropriate to the context, the topic, and the purpose of the discussion.
Uses language features and specific vocabulary to express own ideas and opinions.
Level 5 Initiates and sustains group discussions with confidence, encouraging, responding to, respecting, and challenging the contribution of other members. Depending on the needs of the group and the purpose of the discussion, can adopt different roles, including that of devil's advocate, to move the discussion forward. Confidently uses social courtesies appropriate to the rules of formal and informal discussion and conversation, including: turn taking; listening to the speaker; acknowledging and making connections with the speaker; interrupting and responding appropriately, e.g., "That's a good point... ", "Have you thought about... ?"; using strategies for differing.
Uses a variety of appropriate verbal and non-verbal features deliberately and appropriately to gain and regain attention; communicate ideas, opinions, and feelings; and obtain feedback.
Communicates, explores, and elicits information, understandings, ideas, and opinions related to personal or indirect experiences.
Uses logic and argument with confidence to justify and substantiate ideas and opinions.
Listens to and identifies key points/main ideas effectively and summarises, elaborates, recounts and/or posits new ideas.
Confidently uses language appropriate to the context, the topic, and the purpose of the discussion.
Uses a variety of language features to express own ideas and opinions.