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Literacy frameworks

In the previous New Zealand Curriculum English documents there were clear demarcations between Viewing and Presenting and Interpersonal Speaking. In the new curriculum there is an interrelatedness between the strands, which encompasses oral, written, and visual forms of language. These are embedded within the Listening/Reading/Viewing and Speaking/Writing/Presenting strands.

The Central Region Special School’s (CRSSC) Expanded English Framework indicators have stemmed from the NZ Curriculum and been informed by numerous other ministry documents and handbooks available. The theoretical perspectives of three related concepts - a developmental perspective, a socialisation of learning and the fact that children take multiple pathways of development - underpin the Expanded English matrix. The indicators reflect the understanding that student progress is negotiable and dynamic, not at fixed end points.

PDF icon. Listening, reading and viewing framework (PDF 96 KB)

PDF icon. Speaking, writing and presenting framework (PDF 97 KB)

Fuel 1 to 6 represents a diverse range of students who may experience significant cognitive and physical disabilities. Fuel includes achievement objects together with indicators that reflect a developmental perspective, the socialisation model and the individual pathway model and are also based on cognitive theory, for example, objects of reference and object
permanence which, for these students, is an important step in learning. Although Fuel includes achievement objectives and indicators it does not include the specific dimensions in level one because of the individual cognitive and developmental processes used by students at this level. These specific dimensions are included in Launch.
Launch is modelled on the way the New Zealand Curriculum sets out its indicators; that is, Purposes and Audiences, Ideas, Language Features and Structures. Fuel indicators reflect the very individual nature of the students working at this level (individual and multiple pathways of development).


Ministry of Education, (2003). Effective Literacy Practice in Year 1 to 4. Wellington: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education, (2007).The Zealand Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media

Ministry of Education, (2009a). Learning through talk: Oral language in Years 1-3. Learning Media: Wellington

Ministry of Education, (2009b). Learning through talk: Oral language in Years 4 to 8. Wellington: Learning Media

Ministry of Education, (2010). The Literacy Progressions: Meeting the Reading and Writing Demands of the Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media


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Central Region Special Schools, (2003). Curriculum Exemplars: From teachers with students with diverse learning needs.
Kleinert, H. L., Browder, D.M. & Towles-Reeves, E. (2009). Models of cognition for students with significant cognitive disabilities: Implications for assessment. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 301-326
McLinden, M. & McCall, S. (2002). Learning through touch: supporting children with visual impairment and additional difficulties. London: Fulton Publishers
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Quest for Learning. Accessed 20th November from http://www.nicurriculum.org.uk/inclusion_and_SEN/SEN/pmld.asp
Sun, K.K. & Kemp, C. (2006). The acquisition of phonological awareness and its relationship to reading in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 30(1), 86-99